Break from posts

Saturday, November 19, 2005

Many of you might have noticed that I haven't posted for a few days and also the post count has been decreasing over many days. This is all because I have been preparing for my exams (I am doing my engineering in Computer Science). I have not got enough time to post the ODOC (One Day One Command) series too. Anyway I would try to post if time permits.

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ODOC: sort

Monday, November 14, 2005

sort - Sort lines of text files

Summary :

Sort the file contents based on options given to it. By default the output is shown in the console.

Examples :
$ sort -- Take the input from stdin, sort and output in stdout.

$ sort myfile -o myoutput -- Sort the myfile content and store in "myoutput"

$ sort -b myfile -- Ignore the leading blanks and sort.

$ sort -br myfile -- Same as above but in reverse order

$ sort -c myfile -- Only Check whether myfile is already sorted

$ sort -f myfile -- Ignore the case and sort (a == A)

$ sort -u myfile -- Sort and output only unique lines

$ sort -t : -k 2,2n -k 5.3,5.4 myfile -- Sort numerically on the 2nd field and resolve ties by sorting alphabetically on the 3rd and 4th characters of field 5. Use `:' as the field delimiter
Read : man sort

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FSDaily launched by Free Software Magazine

Monday, November 14, 2005

Free Software magazine staff launched FSDaily.com which gives daily news about free softwares. They introduced their blog at their website, but weren't happy with it. So they have launched a seperate site Free Software Daily which is a lot like a news blog written by the authors of Free Software Magazine.

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ODOC: ulimit

Sunday, November 13, 2005

ulimit - Control the resources available to processes

Summary :

ulimit, Bash Built-in Command, provides control over the
resources (Virtual Mem, Max no .of process, Core file
size, ...) available to processes started by the shell.

If Max no. of user process is set to 5, then the particular
user can't run more then 5 process.

Examples :
$ ulimit -a -- Show All current limits.

$ ulimit -c -- Show core file size (If Core file size is 0, Core file will not be created during the SEG fault).

$ ulimit -c 1000 -- Set new core file size.

$ ulimit -u 3 -- Set max no .of user processes

$ ulimit -n -- Show max open files.
Read : info bash (or) help ulimit

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New Linux live CD for security professionals

Saturday, November 12, 2005

Arudius (formerly Securinix) is a live CD Linux distribution based on Slackware (Minislack) and Linux Live scripts. It contains an extensive set of software tools used by IT security professionals for penetration testing and vulnerability analysis. Its goal is to include the most comlete set of useful security tools and still maintain a small footprint.

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ODOC: nl

Saturday, November 12, 2005

nl - Number lines of files

Summary :

Write each FILE to stdout, with line numbers added.
With No FILE or -, read stdin

Examples :
nl myfile -- Writes all non-empty lines with number.

nl -ba myfile -- Number all lines.

nl -ba -l2 myfile -- Count 2 empty line as 1 and display

nl -nln myfile -- Numbers are left justified.

nl -nrz myfile -- Numbers are right justified and leading zeros

nl -w2 myfile -- Uses 2 column for the line number.

nl -s"> " myfile -- Insert "> " in between number and line.

ls | nl -- ls Output with line numbers
Read : man nl

Tech Tags:

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ODOC: touch

Friday, November 11, 2005

touch - Change File Timestamps

Summary :

Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time. Also used to create a file.

Examples :
$ touch myfile -- change the time stamp to current time. If myfile is not there then touch will create it.

$ touch -c myfile -- Same as above. But If myfile is not there, then it won't create it.

$ touch -r f1 f2 -- Set f1's time to f2 instead of current time

$ touch -a myfile -- Change only access time.

$ touch -m myfile -- change only the modification time

$ touch -t 200412251122.33 -- set this time instead of current time

$ ls -lu myfile -- Shows the last access time
Read : man touch

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ODOC: comm

Friday, November 11, 2005

comm - Compare 2 Sorted files line by line

Summary :

Compare two sorted files F1 and F2 line by line.

Examples :
$ comm F1 F2 -- Output contain 3 col. Col 1 - Uniq to F1, Col 2 - Uniq to F2 and Col 3 - Comman to F1 & F2

$ comm -1 F1 F2 -- Suppress lines unique to F1

$ comm -2 F1 F2 -- Suppress lines unique to F2

$ comm -3 F1 F2 -- Suppress comman lines to F1 & F2

$ comm -13 F1 F2 -- Show lines from F2, which is not in F1

$ comm -23 F1 F2 -- Show lines from F1, which is not in F2

Read : man comm

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ODOC: ls

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

ls -- List directory contents

Summary :

List the current directory contents and informations. This is one important command you would be using all the time. It is synonymous with the dir command in DOS.

Examples :
$ ls -- Alphabetically list all files and dir

$ ls -r -- Reverse order

$ ls --color=always -- Output in color

$ ls -F -- Files are classified with /@|= symbols

$ ls -1 -- Output in single column

$ ls -a -- Display hidden entries starting with .

$ ls -R -- Recursive output

$ ls -Q -- Enclose entry names in double quotes
Read : man ls

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New worm targets Linux systems or does it

Tuesday, November 08, 2005

ZDNet reports a new worm for linux systems. Since I was busy yesterday, I saw about this only today.
The vulnerabilities that this virus attacks actually belong to three scripts, not the OS itself. Therefore, I really wouldn’t call this a Linux virus. That’s like calling a vulnerability in MS Word or Windows Skype a Windows virus.
I agree with him. Anyway two of the vulnerabilities have been fixed earlier. And even if you haven't updated your system, you will not be affected if you aren't running a web server. This rules out home users.
Here are the descriptions of the virus by McAffe and Symantec.

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ODOC: uname

Tuesday, November 08, 2005

uname - Display system informations

Summary:-

Display system information like OS Type, Kernel version, Architecture, Host name etc...
The uname command will collect the information from the /proc/sys/kernel/{ostype, hostname, osrelease, version, domainname}.

Examples :-
$ uname -- Kernel Name

$ uname -n -- Show the machine name

$ uname -rv -- Show kernel's release & Ver info

$ uname -om -- Show Arch and OS Type

$ uname -a -- Show all info
Read: man uname

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ODOC: df

Monday, November 07, 2005

df -- Disk Free and Usage report

Summary:-

df command display the amount of disk space available on the FileSystem (FS) containing each file name argument. If no file name is given, the space available on all currently mounted Filesystems are shown.

Examples :-
$ df -- Usage report of all mounted FS.

$ df myfile -- Display usage report of FS which contain
the myfile.

$ df /home -- Usage report of Home partition

$ df /dev/hda1 -- Usage report of /dev/hda1

$ df -Th -- Display the partition type and size is in human
readable format

$ df -x tmpfs -- Don't list the 'tmpfs' partitions.

$ df -P -- Output in POSIX format. (Remove -P and see the
difference)
Read: man df

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ODOC: watch

Sunday, November 06, 2005

watch - Periodically run and show the output of a program

Summary:

Watch runs command repeatedly, displaying its output This allows you to monitor the program output change over time.

Examples :-
$ watch ls -- Every 2sec(default time) 'ls' is executed and output is showed on the screen.

$ watch -n 6 who -- Every 6Sec 'who' run and list the current users

$ watch -d date -- Highlight the difference b/w successive updates

Press Ctrl+C to stop the Watch Command.

Read: man watch

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ODOC: ac

Saturday, November 05, 2005

ac - Print statistics about users' connect time

Summary:

"ac" command will print the users' connect time details in different formats (Total, Per day, Per user, etc..)

Example:
$ ac -- print total useage
$ ac -p -- print indv user info
$ ac -dy -- print daily based report

Read: man ac

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ODOC: free

Friday, November 04, 2005

free -- Display Information about Memory utilization

Summary:-

Displays the total amount of free and used physical memory & swap space in the system, as well as the buffers & cache consumed by the kernel.

Examples :-
$ free -- Display the mem info in KB

$ free -m -- Display the mem info in MB

$ free -m -t -- Display the total mem info

$ free -s 2 -- Display the mem info for every 2 sec

$ free -s 2 -c 5 -- Display the mem info for every 2 sec, but only 5 times

$ cat /proc/meminfo -- This is the original file which is used by free command for the report
Read: man free

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GoboLinux - different approach to package management

Thursday, November 03, 2005

GoboLinux is a Linux distribution that breaks with the historical Unix directory hierarchy. Basically, this means that there are no directories such as /usr and /etc. The main idea of the alternative hierarchy is to store all files belonging to an application in its own separate subtree; therefore we have directories such as /Programs/GCC/2.95.3/lib.
The FAQ clearly states that this is not a distro for a newbie. This is more for the user who would like to compile his own software. Here is a nice article about GoboLinux at linux.com and here are some screenshots.

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Nokia goes on open source Safari

Thursday, November 03, 2005

Nokia
Nokia, the mobile phone giant has created an open-source browser based on Safari for smartphones. This team of Nokia and Safari will deliver a web browser for the S60 smartphone sotware platform.
Nokia says the browser, which will be made available to other companies licensing the S60 platform for their own smartphones, will give users a better surfing experience. It is designed to display Web pages on a phone exactly as they look on a monitor.
The browser includes pop-up blocking, access to RSS feeds and a text search feature. It uses components from Apple's Safari Web Kit — the open source engine for mobile devices based on KHTML — and KJS from KDE's Konqueror open source project.
With the availability of high speed wireless data networks, the operators and handset makers are trying to bring the entire web to your mobile phone. Nokia has also launched opensource.nokia.com as a portal to all its open source projects.

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Gideon - GUI Designer for GTK/C++

Thursday, November 03, 2005

Gideon is a versatile GUI designer for GTK/C++. The goal of the project is to provide an easy-to-use RAD tool for C++ programmers who want to create multi-platform GTK-based GUI applications. Gideon is not overloaded but strives to provide all necessary features and remain 'simple and lightweight' to end user. Gideon is highly productive for experts and accessible for newcomers. Try Gideon for your GUI programming in C++.

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Firefox 1.5 RC1 available

Thursday, November 03, 2005

Firefox 1.5 Release Candidate 1 was released, however this is not the final version of the new Firefox 1.5. This RC was released for the developer and testing community for compatibility testing and to solicit feedback.
Firefox 1.5 has various new features like:
  • Automated update
  • Faster browser navigation
  • Drag and drop reordering of browser tabs
  • Improvements to popup blocking
  • Clear private data feature
  • Improvements to product usability
  • Answers.com added to search engine list
  • Better accessibility
  • Report a broken website wizard
  • Better support for Mac OS X
  • new support for web standard - SVG, CSS 2, CSS 3 and Javascript 1.6
  • and many security fixes
Firefox can be downloaded and installed easily. Try firefox and browse the web in a better way.

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ODOC: cat

Thursday, November 03, 2005

cat -- CATenate files & print on the STDOUT

Summary:

From Jargon File: Catenate is an obscure word meaning "to connect in a series", which is what the "cat" command does to one or more files.

Cat will conCATenate the FILE(s) / STDIN to STDOUT.

Examples:
$ cat foo -- Dump the file named foo to STDOUT (please be careful with the case of the filename)

$ cat File1 File2 File3 -- Dump File1, File2 & File3

$ cat -b File -- Print the File with Number for Non blank lines

$ cat -s File -- Squeeze multiple blank lines to single.

$ cat -A File -- Show the Non-Printable Chars also

$ cat > File -- Concat the STDIN to STDOUT & FILE. This can be used to quickly create a file with some content. After you have finished typing the contents, press Ctrl+D to save.
Read: info cat
Tech Tags:

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ODOC: echo

Thursday, November 03, 2005

echo - Display a line of text on the screen

Summary:

Echo is used to show a line of text on the screen with limited Esc sequence (BELL, Backspace, H-Tab, V-Tab,...) handling capabilities.

Example:
$ echo -- print a empty line
$ echo "Free\nSoftware" -- Just prints the Line
$ echo -e "Free\nSoftware" -- Interpret and print the Line

Read: man echo

Tech Tags:

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Good bye Debian text based install

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

"The Debian Weekly News for October 25th, 2005 discusses the upcoming graphical frontend to the debian-installer as part of the most recent minutes of the monthly Debian Installer team meeting. It appears that after all of these years the text based Debian installation is finally getting the boot." Screenshots here.

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Debian GNU/Solaris announced

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

An initial pilot program of Nexenta - GNU/Solaris has been announced and the initial trials are limited to Ubuntu developers and the entire Debian community. Sun Microsystems recenly opened the Solaris Kernel under the CDDL license, which allows any one to build custom Operating Systems. So a new Debian GNU/Solaris distro has been created. It is great to see how the open source community works together.
Also see my previous post about Belenix - a live Solaris CD by a group in India.

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Mac Mini leads to MiniPC with Linux

Wednesday, November 02, 2005


A Taiwanese systems integrator is readying a tiny Linux-powered PC likely to make even Mac Mini owners envious. The AOpen MiniPC measures 6.5 x 6.5 x 2 inches, is powered by an Intel Pentium M or Celeron M processor, and runs Linspire Linux.

The MiniPC will be available initially in two versions. The MP915-C will be powered by an Intel Celeron M 360 processor clocked at 1.4GHz. The MP915-P will be powered by an Intel Pentium M 740 (Dothan) processor clocked at 1.73 GHz. Both models will use Intel's 915 GM chipset, and come with a 512MB DDR2 400 SODIMM memory module running at 533MHz.

The Celeron-based MiniPC will include a 40GB hard drive, as well as a slot-loading DVD player and CD writer. The Pentium-based model will have an 80GB drive, and adds DVD+/- writing capability. Both models inlcude a pair of USB 2.0 host ports, along with an IEEE 1394 (FireWire) port. Both include Gigabit Ethernet ports, while the Pentium-based model comes pre-installed with an 802.11b/g mini-PCI card.
Both MiniPC's include DVI (digital video interface) ports, and S-Video.
The A-Open MiniPC will ship this month in the US through TigerDirect, with prices starting at $399, including the Linspire operating system. A $499 version running WIndows XP will also be available. The Pentium M version is likely to have a street price in the US of about $600.

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Template Changed

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

Atlast I have changed the template of my blog. I guess it looks nice and simple. If you find any thing wrong or not functioning or think this looks cool, please comment here. I want to make sure that the new template is accessible in all platforms and browsers.

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OpenBSD 3.8 released

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

OpenBSD 3.8 was released November 1, 2005. This is the 18th release via CD (and 19th via FTP).
Though I haven't tried OpenBSD, I have heard really good reviews of it. It is having a great record for 8 years with only a single remote hole in the default installation. Here are the mirrors where you can download OpenBSD.
Anybody have tried OpenBSD, please put in your valuable comments here.

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ODOC: date

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

date - Print & set the system data & time

Summary:

date will print the time information in different formats and we can also make a custom formats using the options.

Example:
$ date == print the current date and time
$ date -d '3year ago' == Same date but 3 yr ago(see how user friendly linux is?)
$ date --set='-10 minutes' == Reduce 10 min in the current time
$ date '+%b %_e %a %X %Z %Y' == Current date in custom format.
Read : info date, man date

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